Much has changed since the publication of the first edition in 2010 with respect to the geopolitical and military context for NATO decision making. Vladimir Putin’s return to the Russian presidency in 2012, and Russia’s annexation of Crimea in 2014, ended a long post-Cold War period of quiescence in Europe with respect to security issues. NATO found itself in 2014 - 2015 not only heavily engaged in ’out of the area’ operations in Afghanistan, but also having to reinvigorate its original mission of deterrence and defense in Europe. The shifting constellations of diplomatic-strategic behavior, as between NATO and Russia under Putin II, could be understood from many perspectives. One perspective is that which was introduced in the earlier work and this perspective is still valid, as a frame of reference for interpreting some important aspects of the division of labor among NATO allies, and in understanding their perceptions of their responsibilities to one another while fulfilling their shared missions of deterrence and defense in the very different milieus of South Asia and Europe.